|The Hermitage, Nashville, TN, United States
|Larry McKee, Interns, and Earthwatch Volunteers
|1990, 1991, and 1995
The remains of Cabin 3, one of four contemporaneous brick duplexes that housed the enslaved at the Field Quarter, were located during a 1990 archaeological survey. Like Cabins 1, 2, and 4, Cabin 3 was a brick duplex with a rectangular limestone foundation measuring approximately forty-by-twenty feet, divided into two living areas by a limestone cross-wall, and flanked by a chimney at either end. Excavations inside the cabin revealed three subfloor storage pits or root cellars, a hearth, as well as a subfloor pit feature that pre-dates the limestone foundation, a vestige of the earlier generation of housing at the Field Quarter. Outside Cabin 3, a porch or foundation for steps as well as adjacent yard space, were investigated. Archaeological work carried out by The Hermitage archaeology staff as well as Earthwatch volunteers during field seasons in 1990, 1991, and 1995, make it the most completely excavated of the cabin sites at the Field Quarter.
The area known as the Field Quarter at the Hermitage is located one-third mile north of the mansion. It was home to as many as eighty enslaved individuals between the 1820s and the 1850s, who worked in the outlying fields (Galle 2004). It was likely a crowded and lively place, and perhaps one of the centers of the plantation community, though the documentary record provides little information on life there. The number of slaves and some slaves’ names are gleaned from lists in account books and various references in letters penned by Jackson family members over the years.
Though no accurate maps or depictions exist that detail the types, locations, or dates of construction of the slave housing at the Field Quarter contemporaneous with Cabin 3, a few key references in letters, receipt books, and traveler’s accounts describe them as four brick duplex buildings that housed eight families ranging in size from five to twelve members. Evidence that the duplexes were still standing in 1856 survives in a newspaper advertisement announcing that the 500 acres of the plantation encompassing the field quarter of the property were for sale. In the ad, Jackson lists some prominent landscape features including, “Several fine springs, good cotton gin, overseer’s house, saw mill, four double brick negro cabins, blacksmith and carpenter’s shop, &c.” ( Nashville Union and American, June 13, 1856, p. 2).
By the 1970s, longtime Hermitage employees who were interviewed about their recollections of the “North Field” or Field Quarter remembered only one or two brick buildings still standing in the 1920’s located near a deep and still very active spring. Archaeological investigation in the Field Quarter began with a survey conducted in 1976 by Samuel D. Smith of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology in which he confirmed locations of two of the 20-by-40 ft. limestone block foundations in the Field Quarter and indicated in his report on the project, “… hopefully, a more thorough investigation of these sites can be undertaken at a future date (Smith et al, 1977).”
Excavation history, procedure, and methods
Though Smith conducted a Field Quarter survey and some unit excavations at Cabins 1 and 2, Cabin 3 remained largely uninvestigated until Larry McKee became director of Archaeology at the Hermitage in 1990. At the beginning of his tenure, McKee established a partnership program with the organization Earthwatch which proved to be a successful involvement lasting several years. Earthwatch volunteers supervised by experienced excavators carried out fieldwork at Cabin 3 and the Field Quarter during his time.
McKee established a grid system with an 1150 ft baseline, oriented to magnetic north, which served as the system used in both the shovel testing program and the later cabin excavations at the Field Quarter. Shovel tests were then dug over the entire fifteen acres at the Field Quarter in 1990, in order to build on Smith’s work and get data on the specific distribution of subsurface remains. Once the Cabin 3 site boundary was established by results of shovel testing, unit excavations began. Research goals driving Cabin 3 unit excavations included determining whether there was evidence of an earlier occupation at the cabin, thorough investigation of the cabin layout and construction, and exploration of yard space surrounding it.
Notable Features inside Cabin 3
The west half of Cabin 3 was first uncovered in 1990. In 1995, work continued inside the cabin on exposing the cross wall dividing the two halves and investigating other attributes of the cabin layout. It was discovered Cabin 3 had a limestone foundation measuring 40-by-20 ft, and like other cabins at the Quarter, was divided in half by a partition that would have provided the living space for one family on each side. Chimneys flanked the structure at either end. The western chimney of Cabin 3 was fully exposed and excavated in 1995, revealing that it protruded out from the foundation approximately 1.5 feet. Adjacent to the chimney base, between it and two root cellar chambers dug in 1990 (Features 279 and 291), lay the hearth area. At the surface, the hearth area measured approximately 3.5-by-4 ft, and still had remnants of a brick surface intact.
In 1990, excavation beneath a rubble layer inside the cabin revealed some curious, short, roughly-made limestone walls in association with a brick-lined subfloor pit or root cellar adjacent to the hearth (F279). The presence of this subfloor pit, with interior measurements of approximately 2.8-by-2.25 ft, came as no surprise as these storage features are commonly found at slave cabin sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Further work on the area, however, revealed that the brick-lined chamber was just one of three adjacent rectangular pit features (with F291 and F301), and that the brick-lined pit was a late addition, subdividing an originally much longer cellar with a total length of 10 feet. This alteration, along with the construction of the bordering limestone walls, may have been done in an attempt to create a barrier to protect stored foods from rats and mice, which are well represented in the faunal remains collected from the site.
Interestingly, Feature 590, a cellar, was found to underlie the foundation of the cabin and therefore, pre-date it. Initially it was thought to be a builder’s trench because it abutted the south foundation wall, but it was later discovered to continue underneath the foundation. Once excavators defined it north of the foundation, it was identified as a cellar based on dimensions. The rectangular pit cut measured 7-by-6 ft and was over two feet deep. The bottom of the cellar had large ash deposits. A small trench measuring 0.3 ft wide lined the bottom inside edge of the cellar and wood impressions indicated it was wood-lined. A semi-circular pit with unknown function (F581) containing charcoal, burnt bone, and glass, was also discovered underneath the cabin’s foundation near the southwest corner. These two features were likely remains of the first generation of slave housing at The Hermitage.
First Generation Housing at the Field Quarter
The early structures at the Field Quarter were wood, probably log, cabins. Then, some time after 1821, when the Hermitage mansion was completed and Jackson owned the land outright, the brick duplex cabins were constructed. The extant log structures were likely in a state of disrepair and the number of slaves at the Hermitage was steadily growing, creating the need for new housing. The 1820 U.S. census listed 44 slaves on the property, a number that rose to nearly 100 by 1830. There is evidence that bricks were produced locally and readily available after 1820, facilitating this construction phase (Thomas 1998).
Notable Features in Cabin 3 Yard Area
Due to the cramped living conditions at the Field Quarter, with each family occupying a 20-by-20 ft cabin, many activities probably took place outdoors. Excavation of the yard space at Cabin 3 was intended to yield a better understanding of how residents used exterior spaces near their cabins and provide information about the occupation sequence at the Field Quarter. Expected features such as postholes were uncovered. Some likely were related to the actual construction of the cabin (e.g.,scaffolding posts), while others may have supported structural extensions like a porch or served as chimney supports. Others still may have been links in pens and fences that criss-crossed the yard area.
Four post holes forming a distinct fenceline were excavated at approximately 9-ft intervals 4.5 ft east of the cabin’s east foundation (F356, F585, F586, F587). The fenceline ran along the same northeast alignment as the foundation, suggesting that the fence dated to the same period as the brick cabins–or possibly with earlier structures that followed the same grid.
Evidence of a porch was discovered on the south side of the structure, which was likely the entrance to the house. Feature 331, a set of large limestone blocks located two feet south of the foundation wall, likely supported a set of wooden steps leading up to the doorway. Sam Smith’s work in the mid-1970’s around the South Cabin foundation at the first Hermitage complex also came up with a cluster of limestone in almost the same juxta- position with its southeast corner (Smith 1976:105).
Also discovered in the Yard Area at Cabin 3 in 1991, was a possible “paved area,” consisting of mid-sized limestone pieces extending northeast from the northeast corner of the cabin foundation (F 337) in a linear band. The paving ran parallel to the cabin’s orientation. The surface beneath the limestone was very hard, and appeared to have been subjected to intense heat. The only artifacts recovered were a cut nail and a very small hand-painted whiteware sherd. A 10-by-10 ft excavation unit was opened to the west of the paving and north of Cabin 3 (N250W020) to investigate it further, which revealed a continuation of the paving north of the foundation.
A five-foot-deep pit (F616) that was also discovered in this unit, contained lumps of dense ash and partially disintegrated limestone, indicating it was possibly used as a lime-processing pit. The limestone was the same size and grade as that of the paving (Feature 337) and may have also been used to produce lime for mortar, possibly for the later brick cabin construction. But the pit’s depth and truncated shape below the ash and limestone remained unexplained. The fill contained no historic artifacts, indicating it was likely filled shortly after it was dug. One scenario is that it was an attempt at digging a well, but was unlikely based on the fact that the people who lived at the Field Quarter were quite experienced at such things, and the idea that they would choose the highest location around for a well makes little sense. Furthermore, a still-active spring is only about 100 yards away, and would have provided a convenient source of fresh water. For these reasons, Feature 616 remains unexplained.
Cabin 3 Yard Area excavations also revealed a dense artifact scatter (F632), originally exposed approximately 15 feet east of Cabin 3 in 1991. The high density of artifacts and dark soil indicated that the area might have been an intentional storage pit of some kind, but no clear pit outlines were ever defined during the 1995 work. Instead, it is likely that this was a naturally low-lying area conducive to refuse build-up. Numerous glazed unrefined earthenware sherds, a complete juvenile pig skeleton, buckles, a piece of early milk glass, and a hand-held grinding stone were recovered from the trash pit.
Artifact scatters were common in the upper deposit layers of units near the cabin, but there was an “empty zone” between these scatters and the location of the trash pit. These empty zones likely represent a swept area that was kept clear of debris in the yard.
Cabin 3 Notable Artifacts
A study of abundances of sewing-related artifacts at Cabin 3 such as a thimble, clothing hooks and eyes, needles, scissors, and straight pins, are relatively low compared to those at the Triplex Middle where a seamstress likely lived and worked. The lower abundance at Cabin 3 suggests routine garment repair and small-scale clothing production that would have been normal for a domestic site (Galle 2004).
Among the remarkable artifacts recovered at Cabin 3, were an 1853 gold one-dollar coin and a mother-of-pearl disk etched with the initials “A J” possibly from one of Jackson’s canes. Both artifacts were recovered from the same disturbed stratigraphic level of the same unit and offer little in the way of analytical utility. Perhaps the most interesting artifact found at Cabin 3 was a small brass charm in the shape of a human hand clinching its fist around a circled length of flattened wire, known as a “hand charm”. This is the second such charm found at the Hermitage. The first one was recovered during excavations at the South Cabin by Sam Smith in 1975 (Smith, 1976: 210-211). Though little is known of the origins of the hand charms, symbolic interpretations abound. It is likely that Jackson would not have distributed these charms and that they are objects that would have been worn and acquired by slaves. The charm was found in the destruction /plowzone layer of a unit just outside the south side of the Cabin 3 foundation.
Additional artifact types discarded at Cabin 3 suggest its inhabitants likely participated at some level in a local market economy. Personal items that were recovered such as beads, buckles, buttons, combs, as well as toy marbles and dolls would not have been provisioned but instead purchased or procured somehow by enslaved individuals (Galle 2004).
McKee and crew dug shovel tests over the entire fifteen acres at the Field Quarter in 1990. McKee established a grid system with an 1150 ft. baseline, oriented to magnetic north, which served as the system used in both the shovel testing program and the later cabin excavations at the Field Quarter. Shovel tests measuring 1-by-1 ft were then dug at 50-ft intervals across the project area. Dirt was screened through quarter-inch mesh, and a careful examination of the soil profiles in the cuts was done in order to look for any traces of buried deposits. All artifacts were bagged by provenience and returned to the lab for washing and cataloging, with the exception of brick and limestone rubble, which was tallied and left in the field.
The formal, large-scale excavations at the site used standard archaeological techniques and methods, applied and modified as necessary to the specific requirements of the site. The standard excavation units employed were 10-by-10 ft squares aligned to the same grid system and baseline used in prior shovel test survey. Although by some archaeological standards this unit size is very large, it is particularly well suited for excavations geared to exposing architectural remains. Five-by-five foot “quadrant” subdivisions of the units were often used during the project in situations where a finer-grained look at artifact distribution was called for, or in order to quickly expose new ground.
Stratigraphic divisions followed the natural layering of the deposits, with the scheme based on strata seen during excavation at other cabins in the Field Quarter: A well-developed sod layer (referred to by excavators as Level 1), followed by a plowzone/other disturbance stratum (Level 2A), followed by a layer formed during abandonment/destruction (Level 2B), with a layer formed during primary occupation (Level 2C) beneath it. Soil and structural features, such as postholes, foundations, pits, and cellars, were defined and dug as separate entities from the usual provenience divisions of levels within grid squares. Photographs were taken and drawings were made whenever warranted by exposures of artifacts or features of note. All deposits below the first sod layer were screened through quarter-inch mesh hardware cloth, and samples from deposits of particular interest (such as root cellars) were waterscreened through eighth-inch window screen. In addition, soil samples were kept from these deposits for flotation analysis in an effort to recover any surviving micro-examples of floral remains, such as charred seeds.
Summary of Research and Analysis
Cabin 3 was one of four brick pen structures in the field quarter at the Hermitage. Excavations revealed a rectangular forty-by-twenty foot structure supported by a limestone foundation with a dividing cross wall and a chimney at each gable end. Notable features include a cellar located in the west half of the cabin. Originally measuring ten feet in length, it was later divided into three chambers, one of which was brick lined. Two features provided evidence of an earlier structure beneath Cabin 3’s foundation: an additional cellar located partially in the west half of the cabin, and an unidentified pit. These features are interpreted as remnants of the first generation of log or wood houses at the field quarter which predate the 1830s (Thomas 1998).
Inhabitants at Cabin 3 routinely discarded items that are indicative of normal domestic life, such as ceramics that would have been provided by Jackson. In addition to these, they discarded numerous non-provisioned items like beads, buckles, buttons, toy marbles and doll parts, suggestive of market participation at some level beyond provisioning that would have provided them access to these items (Galle 2004).
DAACS chronological analysis identified five phases spanning throughout the nineteenth century at Cabin 3. (see Cabin 3’s Chronology page). The principal investigators of Cabin 3 did not develop a chronology for the site, so the chronology presented here is the only current chronology for Cabin 3.
Larry McKee and Leslie Cooper
TRC Solutions and Digital Archaeological Archive of Comparative Slavery
Things you need to know about Cabin 3 before you use the data:
- The DAACS Project ID for Cabin 3 is “1405”. All Cabin 3 contexts and artifact IDs begin with that prefix. A two-digit year representing the field season in which it was excavated, followed by a two-digit project number assigned to Cabin 3 for that particular year, follows the Project ID for all Contexts and Artifact IDs. Cabin 3 was excavated in 1990, 1991 and 1995. All contexts for Cabin 3 dug in 1990 begin with the following” “1405-90-01”; All contexts for Cabin 3 dug in 1991 begin with “1405-91-01”; All contexts for Cabin 3 dug in 1995 begin with “1405-95-01” or “1405-95-02”.
- The Hermitage employed the “CRN” or “Context Register Number” system for artifact and context management, which DAACS has retained. CRNs were assigned in the field as consecutive three-digit numbers to contexts and their respective artifacts in the order they were dug, and were independent of provenience information. Context/provenience information is found in the DAACS Context Record.
- Measurements are in feet and tenths-of-feet. Quadrat/unit size at Cabin 3 is 10-by-10 feet. Often, units were subdivided into four quadrants: A, B, C and D. Quadrant A is located in the northwest, Quadrant B in the northeast, Quadrant C in the southeast, and Quadrant D in the southwest.
- Contexts were excavated by natural layer. Stratigraphy at the Field Quarter was rather consistent: Level 1 is interpreted as Topsoil, 2A is interpreted as a Plowzone/transitional layer, 2B is interpreted as a Destruction layer and 2C as an Occupation layer. Features were sometimes bisected and sometimes not. Refer to “Excavator Descriptions” for individual feature clarification.
- The site grid for Cabin 3 is based on the Field Quarter datum established by Larry McKee in the 1990s (Note that this grid is used for Cabins 1, 2, 3, 4, KES, and shovel testing in the Field Quarter; a separate grid using the same magnetic north but based a different datum located south of the mansion was used for the following DAACS sites: Yard Cabin, Triplex and Mansion Backyard fieldwork).
- For most of Cabin 3, units/quadrats and all contexts excavated within them are identified with a Quadrat ID based on the coordinates for the northwest corner of that unit: a Northing followed by a Westing, e.g. N240W010; however, the five most eastern units at Cabin 3 follow a different Quadrat ID naming-convention wherein they were named by the coordinates of the northeast corner, which was done in order to avoid having a series of units with a zero easting/westing, because the zero longitude line runs through the middle of the site.
Cabin 3 Artifact Data
DAACS analysts cataloged to DAACS standards all of the artifacts from Cabin 3 except for artifact types that fall into the “All Other Artifacts” category. This means that all beads, buckles, buttons, ceramic vessels, glass vessels, tobacco pipes, and utensils that were present in the collection were physically examined and cataloged by DAACS staff. Data about objects that fell into the “All Other Artifacts” category, such as brick, nails, mortar, window glass, tools, metal pots, etc. (See All Other Artifacts for complete listing of all artifact forms) were entered into DAACS from previous artifact catalogs produced by the Hermitage Archaeology Lab. This means that any artifacts with “Hermitage” as the Cataloger/Editor will have basic attribute data, such as form and material type, but not the complete set of DAACS attributes. If you receive data that does not contain measurements or decorative data, please use an advanced query (such as AQ5) to see who cataloged the artifact.
The original excavators of the Cabin 3 site assigned numbers to individual features. Between 1988 and 2003, all archaeological features identified at The Hermitage were assigned consecutive feature numbers, regardless of excavation year and location on the property. For example, the first feature identified at the beginning of Larry McKee’s field work in 1988 was Feature #1. By the end of the excavation season in 2003, over 900 features had been identified and excavated at The Hermitage since 1988. The Cabin 3 site was excavated over several years and the feature numbers at this site range, not consecutively, from Feature 345 to Feature 632. Since Cabin 3 feature numbers were assigned by the excavators, they do not have a F-prefix as DAACS-assigned feature numbers do.
Feature groups are sets of features whose spatial arrangements indicate they were part of a single structure (e.g. structural postholes, subfloor pits, and hearth) or landscape element (e.g. postholes that comprise a fenceline). Feature Groups at The Hermitage were assigned by DAACS and they have a FG-prefix, which precedes the number (i.e. FG01 equals Feature Group 1).
|Pit, subfloor(< 28 sq.ft)
|90-01-069, 90-01-135, 90-01-134, 90-01-148, 90-01-166
|Pit, subfloor(< 28 sq.ft)
|90-01-161, 90-01-168, 90-01-234, 90-01-238, 90-01-237, 91-01-187
|Interior wall, stone
|Pit, subfloor(< 28 sq.ft)
|90-01-212, 90-01-221, 90-01-224, 90-01-233, 91-01-66, 90-01-225
|Pit, subfloor(< 28 sq.ft)
|91-01-031, 91-01-033, 91-01-057
|91-01-063, 91-01-065, 91-01-064
|91-01-096, 91-01-099, 91-01-243
|Not a Basin/Cut
|91-01-124, 91-01-130, 95-02-019
|Not a Basin/Cut
|Not a Basin/Cut
|95-01-045, 95-01-057, F590CLEAN
|Not a Basin/Cut
|Not a Basin/Cut
|95-02-042, 95-02-050, 95-02-056
|Not a Basin/Cut
The use of common analytical methods is designed to increase comparability among phases at different sites. The methods, any changes we made to those methods that are specific to the site, and the phase assignments our methods produce are summarized below. DAACS encourages users of Archive data to help explore improvements to our methods.
For some sites, the original excavators developed intra-site chronologies and, where these exist, they are described on the Background page for the site. In the case of The Hermitage’s Cabin 3, the principal investigators did not develop a chronology for the site. The DAACS chronology presented here is the only current chronology for the site.
DAACS Seriation Method
As with other sites in the Archive, the seriation chronology for the Cabin 3 site was derived from ceramic assemblages aggregated at the level of stratigraphic groups and individual contexts not assigned to stratigraphic groups. To reduce the noise introduced by sampling error, only ceramic assemblages with more than 5 sherds and more than two ceramic types were included. Assemblages from topsoil, unit clean-up, and surface collections were exclude from the analysis. Correspondence Analysis is an iterative process therefore in the final analysis we removed the Stratigraphic Group 2 ceramics assemblage from Quadrat N220/E010 as it was a significant outlier. The seriation chronology presented here is the result of a correspondence analysis (CA) of ware-type frequencies from contexts that meet these requirements (Figures 1 and 2).
The CA results produced a strong correlation between Dimension 1 scores and MCDs (Figure 3), indicating that Dimension 1 represents time from left to right. Based on the dips in ceramic counts observed in a histogram of Dimension 1 scores, where the vertical axis measures ceramic assemblage size, we divided the site into five occupational phases (Figure 4).
Cabin 3 Site Phases
DAACS Phases are groups of assemblages that have similar correspondence-analysis scores, similar MCDs, or both, and are therefore inferred to be broadly contemporary. Phases have a P-prefix that precedes the phase number (e.g. P01 equals Phase 1).
Mean ceramic dates for the site-specific phases are given in the table below. The table also includes two estimates of the ceramic TPQ for each phase. The first TPQ estimate is the usual one – the maximum beginning manufacturing date among all the Ware types in the assemblage. The second estimate — TPQp90 — is the 90th percentile of the beginning manufacturing dates among all the sherds in the assemblage, based on their Ware types. This TPQ estimate is more robust against excavation errors and taphonomic processes that might have introduces a few anomalously late sherds in an assemblage.
A Seriation Chronology for Cabin 3
The following table presents a seriation chronology for the Cabin 3 site. We use the indefinite article to signify that it is not the only chronology possible, nor the best. We encourage users of Archive data to help explore improvements.
The stratigraphic relationships among stratigraphic groups and unassigned contexts are summarized in the Harris Matrix for the site. DAACS phase assignments from the seriation are shown on the Harris Matrix in color, facilitating comparison of the seriation chronology and the stratigraphic chronology of the site.
Cabin 3 Harris Matrix
The Harris Matrix summarizes stratigraphic relationships among excavated contexts and groups of contexts that DAACS staff has identified as part of the same stratigraphic group. Stratigraphic groups and contexts are represented as boxes, while lines connecting them represent temporal relationships implied by the site’s stratification, as recorded by the site’s excavators (Harris 1979).
Stratigraphic groups, which represent multiple contexts, are identified on the diagram by their numeric designations (e.g. SG01). Contexts that could not be assigned to stratigraphic groups are identified by their individual context numbers (e.g. 95-01-056).
Boxes with color fill represent contexts and stratigraphic groups with ceramic assemblages large enough to be included in the DAACS seriation of the site (see Chronology). Their seriation-based phase assignments are denoted by different colors to facilitate evaluation of the agreement between the stratigraphic and seriation chronologies. Grey boxes represent contexts that were not included in the seriation because of small ceramic samples.
See Cabin 3 Chronology for stratigraphic and phase information.
This Harris Matrix is based on data on stratigraphic relationships recorded among contexts in the DAACS database. It was drawn with the ArchEd application. See http://www.ads.tuwien.ac.at/arched/index.html.
For a printable version, download the Harris Matrix [182.93 KB PDF].
PDF of composite excavator’s plan, compiled by DAACS from original field drawings, with excavation units and features labeled.
PDF of composite excavator’s plan, compiled by DAACS from original field drawings, with excavation units labeled.
PDF of composite excavator’s plan, compiled by DAACS from original field drawings, with features labeled.
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2010 Sweepin’ Spirits: Power and Transformation on the Plantation Landscape, In Archaeology and the Preservation of Gendered Landscapes, S. Baugher and S.M. Spencer-Wood, editors. Springer
2004 A Space of Our Own: Redefining the Enslaved Household at Andrew Jackson’s Hermitage Plantation, In Household Chores and Household choices: Theorizing the domestic Sphere in Historical Archaeology, edited by K. Barile and J. C. Brandon. University of Alabama Press, Mobile.
Galle, Jillian E.
2004 Designing Women: Measuring Acquisition and Access at the Hermitage Plantation, Engendering African American Archaeology: A Southern Perspective In Engendering African American Archaeology: A Southern Perspective, edited by Jillian E. Galle and Amy L. Young. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.
Harris, Edward C.
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1995 The Earth Is Their Witness, The Sciences. March/April.
Russell, Aaron E.
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Smith, Samuel D., Michael Martin , Stephen D. Cox , Emanuel Breitburg , and Fred W. Brigance
1977 Results of the 1976 Season of the Hermitage Archaeology Project. Report prepared for the Ladies' Hermitage Association and the Tennessee American Revolution Bicentennial Commission.
Smith, Samuel D.
1976 An Archaeological and Historical Assessment of the First Hermitage. Tennesse Division of Archaeology Research Series No. 2. Published by the Tennesse Division of Conservation, Nashville, Tennesse.
Thomas, Brian W., Larry McKee , and Jennifer Bartlett
1995 Summary Report on the 1995 Hermitage Field Quarter Excavation. Ms. on file, The Ladies' Hermitage Association, Hermitage, Tennessee.
Thomas, Brian W.
1998 Power and Community: The Archaeology of Slavery at The Hermitage Plantation. American Antiquity, Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 531-551.
Thomas, Brian W., and Larissa Thomas
2004 Gender and Presentation of Self: An Example from The Hermitage, In Engendering African American Archaeology: A Southern Perspective. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.