|Occupation Dates:||Third-quarter 18th century through mid-19th century|
|Excavator(s):||Mark Hauser, Khadene Harris, Isaac Shearn|
|Dates excavated:||2011, 2015, 2016|
(Locus 1) The Estate House was used as a residential space throughout the colonial history of Morne Patate. A 1784 source states that the estate house was 55 feet by 40 feet with a masonry foundation and wooden frame. It was composed of six chambers, a store, hall, and two galleries, suggesting that it had been rebuilt. In addition to the estate house, the documentation lists a pounding mill, a flour house, a wooden building, a boucan, a horse stable, a manager’s house, a cistern, a boiling house, and a cattle mill. Additionally, there were 120 enslaved people that lived in 36 houses. By 1817, records indicate that the number of enslaved individuals had increased to 166, and that a boiling house and glacee had been constructed, demonstrating the continued investment in both coffee and sugar production.
There ais no documentation related to Nicholas Belligny’s land use practices between 1745 and 1763, however, it is likely that enslaved laborers on the estate worked to produce provisions, coffee, and cacao for Martinique. After 1763, when the island was annexed by Great Britain, there are several documents that record land use and labor on the plantation. A 1777 indenture between Belligny and his heirs valued the estate at 707,973 French livres, or 35,396 British pounds, and included a 200-acre Lower Soufriere Estate and 88-acre Upper Soufriere Estate, which would become Morne Patate. The lack of a boiling house on Upper Soufriere Estate at this point indicates that it was likely used for provisions or coffee. Additionally, it indicates that there was one stone house that was 60 by 20 ft long with galleries on three sides, as well as a stone grating house, boucan, a house in the pasture, and two sheds (Murphy and Hauser 2020:44).
Belligny divided the estate in 1784, and his son received the portion that would become Morne Patate (Murphy and Hauser 2020:45). Between the 1777 indenture and the updated 1784 probate, the estate house was altered to 55 ft by 40 ft. It was described as having a masonry foundation, wooden frame, and six chambers that included a store, a hall, and two galleries. These significant differences suggest that the house had been rebuilt. The 1784 documentation additionally includes a pounding mill, flour house, stable, manager’s house, cistern, and bousan as part of the estate. A final change during this period was the construction o a cattle mill and boiling house, indicating a shift to sugar agriculture. An 1816 probate records the building of a boiling house and glacee, suggesting that the landowners invested in both coffee and sugar production. The estate continued to produce both crops during tis colonial history rather than fully investing in sugar, and an 1827register indicates that Morne Patate had 121 enslaved people that produced 25,075 pounds of coffee and 21,000 pounds of sugar, making it the second largest producer of sugar in the parish and largest producer of coffee (ibid.:46).
People continued to live and work at Morne Patate after the abolition of slavery in 1833. The production of coffee declined during this period due to a coffee blight in the 1830’s, however sugar continued to be produced. Beginning in the late 19th century, however, corporations in Soufriere began a market for limes, and workers began cultivating lime trees in fields that once produced sugar (Murphy and Hauser 2020:47).
Excavation history, procedure, and methods
Locus 1 consists of the domestic complex that was inhabited by the plantation’s owners and managers. It included three excavation blocks: the Estate, the Stables, and House Area E. All three areas have evidence of multiple phases of architectural construction. Excavation took place in blocks, although no one of the yards were excavated to their fullest extent so that the sample size was not sacrificed. Architecture was identified through the alignment of postholes, stone, foundations, or floors in each excavated area, and all identified structures had material or dietary evidence of everyday life, including storage pits and cooking hearths. Locus 1 was identified during field seasons in 2015 and 2016. Initial excavation consisted of shovel test pits (STPs), which utilized natural stratigraphy. Each level within an STP was assigned its own Field Specimen Number (FS). STPs were excavated until reaching sub soil, obstruction by rocks, or the excavation integrity was compromised due to depth, usually at approximately 1 m. Soils were screened through ¼ inch mesh, and all identified materials were recovered. Artifacts and their associated context records were subsequently entered into DAACS.
In 2015-2016 71 2×2 m units were also excavated. Soil was sifted and both micro and macro artifacts recovered. Features identified by project members were recorded, mapped, and excavated at each level, and soil from features, including middens, post holes, floors, and heaths, were collected for flotation. Four 2×2 m units were also excavated; two of these were used to further identify a garden during mapping, while the second two expanded a kitchen midden during the first phase of research. Volunteers working with William Keegan from the Florida Museum of Natural History additionally excavated 1×1 m test units in order to better situate the primary settlements, defined as the Estate House and Dependencies (Locus 1), the Village (Locus 2), and the Provision Grounds (Locus 3) (Hauser 2020a).
The estate house, or maison de maître, was excavated as House Area H (HA H). HA H is where the planter’s resided, and archaeological evidence suggests that it was both rebuilt and reoriented over time. Two units were placed in what was identified as the estate kitchen and midden, while four units were opened in the estate house (Harris 2020:102). Excavation revealed three houses superimposed over each other, which roughly corresponded with three phases of site occupations. From Phase 1 (pre-1770) there were postholes and a cooking hearth identified. Phase 2 (1770-1830) included a masonry foundation and cobble floor, and Phase 3 (1830-188) included a second masonry foundation (Harris 2020:106). The 1816 probate inventory discussed previously states that it was 55 feet by 40 feet with a masonry foundation and wooden frame, which is confirmed by the visible foundations from the excavation.
House Area E
House area E (HA E) is one of the blocks that only contained one phase of occupation. Domestic features from this area dated to Phase 1 occupation (pre-1770). HA E was excavated in 2016 and is located near the estate house and six meters north of the stables (Harris 2020:106). It predates the stable and may have been a laborer’s house that was built and occupied during the plantation’s earliest European occupation. HA E was excavated as a combination to two blocks, and was situated on top of fill that ranged from 15cm to 1.2 m. There was evidence of architecture in the form of postholes in each block (9 in one and 5 in the other), situated less than 20 m from each other, suggesting pilons were sunk into the underlying subsoil. Block E is also located adjacent to the glacee, which was used for coffee drying (Harris 2020:106). Archaeological evidence for this includes postholes and small architectural features, which date to Phase 1 (pre-1770).
The stables are located 6 m south of HA E and are visible today as a dry-stone structure in ruins. The extant structure likely dates to the early 19th century, and oral histories indicate that it was converted into an overseer’s residence in the mid-19th century. This structure was built on top of a previous 18th century habitation, although there is a lack of evidence for occupation between c. 1770-1880 (Harris 2020:103). Human occupation resumed c. 1880, however, which supports the oral history regarding the overseer’s residence in the 19th century.
Summary of Research
Research at Locus 1 has focused on how French and English plantation owners, managers, and enslaved laborers used and defined space (Harris 2020, Hauser 2020a, 2020b), subsistence practices and landscape use (Wallman and Oas 2020), on sourcing coarse earthenware ceramics (Bloch and Bollwerk 2020), and on carved ceramic disc manufacture and use (Galle and Bates 2017, Bates, Galle, and Harris 2017).
DAACS has developed detailed chronologies for Locus 1 (see Locus 1 Chronology page), and for the entire estate that allows for comparison among the three Morne Patate loci and other archaeological sites in DAACS (Bates, Galle, Neiman 2020). Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economies at Morne Patate, edited by Mark W. Hauser and Dianne Wallman, contain these articles as well as broad historical and archaeological review of the estate. Hauser’s forthcoming book, Mapping Water on Dominica: Environment and Enslavement under Colonialism Culture, Place and Nature, places the role of water and water use at Morne Patate into the broader context of Colonial Dominica (2021).
DAACS Plantation-wide Chronology
Establishing a robust chronology is critical to tracking changes in occupation intensity, and household complexity through time and space at Morne Patate. Lynsey Bates, Fraser Neiman, and Jillian Galle developed the archaeological chronology for Morne Patate, and their methods are described in detail in Bates, Galle, and Neiman 2020. The data, R code, preprint, and supplementary figures that goes along this article are freely available here through the Center for Open Science.
Here we provide a brief look at how Locus 1 fits into the plantation-wide chronology.
At Locus 1, the presumed location of the household of the estate’s owners or overseers, DAACS’s plantation-wide chronology uncovered evidence for a steep decline in occupational intensity or perhaps a hiatus in the last decade of the eighteenth century (Phase 3), corresponding to the shift to sugar production on the island and associated transition on Morne Patate after British annexation. As outlined above, Locus 1 is composed of three excavation blocks, the Stable Block, the Estate Block, and Block E. All three have architectural evidence for multiple episodes of construction. Documentary evidence also suggests that the estate house had been rebuilt several times. An early-nineteenth-century foundation remains visible at the Estate Block, while excavators encountered postholes below overlying layers, which hint at earlier, eighteenth-century construction at the site. The phased bar chart for the Estate Block offers evidence for late-eighteenth-century (Phases 1 and 2) occupation, an occupational or depositional hiatus in Phase 3, and then a resumption of deposition in Phases 4 and 5. The extant stable is thought to date to the early nineteenth century. Oral history suggests that the stable was turned into an overseer’s residence in the mid-nineteenth century. The phased bar chart of ceramics by phase by block (Figure 1) reveals that the stable was built on top of an earlier eighteenth-century occupation. The lack of assemblages from Phases 2–4 is striking. Occupation—by people—resumed in Phase 5, confirming the oral history about the arrival of an overseer in the post-emancipation period.
Bates et al. also analyzed the discard of various artifact types by phase, demonstrating that in Plantation Phases 1 and 2, the Locus 1 household has much higher wealth levels than the Locus 2 households (Figure 2). After Phase 3, Locus 1 wealth drops precipitously, leading to our inference that hired overseers replaced owners in the early nineteenth century (after Phase 3).
In Locus 2, the presumed site of the slave village, a sharp increase in occupational intensity in Phase 2 was detected, followed by further increases in Phases 3 and 4, and then a sharp decline with emancipation in Phase 5. These trends likely reflect an increase in the size of the enslaved population from the start of British control in 1763 until emancipation. Emancipation was followed by dispersal of many enslaved households. But significant numbers remained. There are subtle hints that enslaved people managed to achieve marginal increases in economic opportunities starting in the late eighteenth century and extending through the early nineteenth century (Phases 2, 3, and 4). This trend continued after emancipation. Finally, Bates et al. discovered evidence for deteriorating living conditions during Phase 2, with declining discard rates for material culture recovered from this period. These features demonstrate the changing ownership and land uses of Morne Patate, ranging from a provisioning estate to a sugar plantation, as it grew and diminished from the 18th through 20th centuries.
Emily Schwalbe, Mark Hauser, and Jillian Galle
Northwestern University, Northwestern University, and DAACS
The DAACS Project ID for Morne Patate Estate is “1250.” All contexts and artifact IDs begin with that prefix. A field specimen (FS) number assigned to individual contexts follows the Project ID for Contexts and Artifact IDs. For example, Unit N4552 E6517 Level 1 was assigned the FS number “5285” in the field; the DAACS context ID is “1250-5285.” Features were also assigned FS numbers. Quadrat IDs were assigned based on the NE corner coordinates.
In DAACS, shovel test pits (STPs) are defined as excavation units that are not subdivided by level, such that each context contains materials from all of the levels (if applicable) excavated within the unit. The excavation strategy differed from this approach in that smaller units (0.4 x 0.4 m) were designated as STPs. Due to the differences in recording, the Unit Type for these smaller units is recorded as “Quadrat/Unit” not “STP.” The excavator’s STP designation can be found in the Excavator Description and Master Context Number fields.
The Village encompasses the following excavation areas at the Morne Patate plantation: Block E, “Stable,” Estate House and Kitchen; STPs with Easting coordinates equal to and less than 6554.
2 x 2 m units were laid out with a tape and a compass on a slope, while 0.4 x 0.4 m units were recorded with a transit.
All measurements are in meters.
All deposits were screened through quarter-inch mesh hardware cloth during all seasons. Samples from deposits of particular interest were floated. Stratigraphic groups do not correspond across excavation blocks/house areas; each excavation block is assigned separate stratigrapic groups, e.g., “BlockE_SG01.”
The Morne Patate Estate assemblages were cataloged using DAACS Lite Protocols. DAACS Lite cataloging protocols leverage two strategies to streamline cataloging: the reduction in the number of attribute fields recorded for each artifact and use of broader batching categories for some categories of artifacts. This was done for budgetary reasons, and it allowed all critical data fields to be recorded for the Morne Patate assemblage while also reducing cataloging time. The “full” DAACS data recording protocols, developed through consultation with various material culture experts, have been used for the majority of sites in the database and will continue to be used for most of the sites entered in the future. If you would like more information about the DAACS Lite protocols, please contact us.
Field records and artifact assemblages from Morne Patate Locus 1 were analyzed and cataloged by Elizabeth Bollwerk (Project Manager for DAACS), Leslie Cooper (DAACS Senior Archaeological Analyst), Lynsey Bates (DAACS Senior Archaeological Analyst), and Alan Armstrong (DRC Fellow/Northwestern). Leslie Cooper created the ArcGIS site maps, pdfs, and pngs using files provided by Mark Hauser. Lynsey Bates produced the Harris Matrices and Correspondence Analysis chronologies.
National Science Foundation, Archaeology Program (BCS 1419672, BCS 0948578), the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (Gr 8413), and Northwestern University’s Faculty Research Grant. Material support came from Island Heritage Foundation for logistical support Dominica and Lands and Survey Division of the Ministry of Housing provided important geospatial information. Permission for research was granted through the Dominica’s Ministry of Education.
The original excavators of the Morne Patate Estate site assigned consecutive numbers to individual features; features assigned by the excavators have an F-prefix.
Several features noted in the field were determined to be “unnumbered features.” These include: Estate – FS6214, originally assigned feature number 123; Block E – FS6243, originally assigned feature number 134. During the 2016 excavations, two features were excavated outside of quadrats, 118 and 124.
For some features, although matrix type was recorded as “Postmold,” there is no evidence in the description or interpretation to suggest that there was a postmold present. Deposit type is recorded as “Fill.”
|F037||Pit, trash||5410, 5411, 5414, 5415, 5417, 5418|
|F100||Hearth, possible||6101, 6104|
DAACS has developed a uniform set of methods to infer intra-site chronologies for all of the sites included in the Archive. These methods, which include frequency-seriation and correspondence analysis, were developed by DAACS (see Neiman, Galle, and Wheeler 2003 for technical details). DAACS employed these methods to develop a plantation-wide chronology for Morne Patate Estate ceramic assemblages (Bates, Galle, Neiman 2020). The data, R code, preprint, and supplementary figures that goes along this article are freely available here through the Center for Open Science.
The use of common methods for all sites in the Archive is designed to increase comparability among temporal phases at different sites. The methods and the phase assignments they produced are summarized below. Archive users may also use the Mean Ceramic Date queries provided on the Query the Database section of this website to calculate MCDs for individual contexts or features.
DAACS Seriation Method
As with other sites in the Archive, the seriation chronology for the Locus 2: Village was derived from ceramic assemblages aggregated at the level of stratigraphic groups and individual contexts not assigned to stratigraphic groups.
The assemblages are derived from two areas. “Locus 1” is the presumed domestic complex that housed the estate’s owners and managers. It includes three excavation blocks: the Estate Block, the Stable Block, and Block E. “Locus 2” is the presumed site ofthe slave village and includes six excavation blocks: Blocks A, B, C, D, F, and G. The excavation blocks are composed of one or more two-meter quadrats. A third area, “Locus 3,” is thought to be the site of a provision ground. It was investigated using shovel test pits, which did not yield ceramic samples large enough to be included in this analysis.
To reduce the noise introduced by sampling error, only ceramic assemblages with more than five sherds were included. The seriation chronology presented here is the result of a correspondence analysis (CA) of ware-type frequencies from contexts that meet these requirements. After running an initial version of the CA, it was determined that several types had small sample sizes (<3) and were distributed randomly, i.e. their distribution showed no discernible pattern. Consequently, these ware types were removed from the CA because they were obscuring the patterning of ware types with larger sample sizes. This process is described in detail in Bates et al. 2020.
DAACS Phases are groups of assemblages that have similar correspondence-analysis scores, similar MCDs, or both, and are therefore inferred to be broadly contemporary. Plantation Phases have a PP-prefix that precedes the phase number (e.g. PP01 equals Plantation Phase 1). Based on the correspondence analysis, DAACS divided the Morne Patate Estate occupation into 5 phases. Mean ceramic dates for the phases are given in the table below. The MCDs and BLUE MCDs, which give less influence to ceramic types with long manufacturing spans for each phase, indicate that Morne Patate Estate was occupied during the last half of the eighteenth century and through the mid-nineteenth century. The table also provides three terminus post quem (TPQ) estimates.
The first TPQ estimate is the usual one – the maximum beginning manufacturing date among all the ware-types in the assemblage. Two other TPQ measures included in the table below are less sensitive to excavation errors and taphonomic processes that might introduce a small amount of anomalously late material into an assemblage. They are TPQp90 and TPQp95. The TPQp95 of 1820 for Plantation Phases 2-5 provides a robust estimate of the estate’s TPQ based on the 95th percentile of the beginning manufacturing dates for all the artifacts comprising it.
Plantation-wide Mean Ceramic Dates and TPQs
|Plantation Phase||MCD||BlueMCD||TPQ||TPQ90||TPQ95||Total Count|
Establishing a robust chronology is critical to tracking changes in occupation intensity, and household complexity through time and space at Morne Patate. At Locus 1, the presumed location of the household of the estate’s owners or overseers, we have uncovered evidence for a steep decline in occupational intensity or perhaps a hiatus in the last decade of the eighteenth century (Phase 3), corresponding to the shift to sugar production on the island and associated transition on Morne Patate after British annexation. In Phases 1 and 2, the Locus 1 household has much higher wealth levels than the Locus 2 households. After Phase 3, Locus 1 wealth drops precipitously, leading to our inference that hired overseers replaced owners in the early nineteenth century (after Phase 3). In Locus 2, the presumed site of the slave village, we have detected a sharp increase in occupational intensity in Phase2, followed by further increases in Phases 3 and 4, and then a sharp decline with emancipation in Phase 5. These trends likely reflect an increase in the size of the enslaved population from the start of British control in 1763 until emancipation. Emancipation was followed by dispersal of many enslaved households. But significant numbers remained. There are subtle hints that enslaved people managed to achieve marginal increases in economic opportunities starting in the late eighteenth century and extending through the early nineteenth century (Phases 2, 3, and 4). This trend continued after emancipation. Finally, we have discovered evidence for deteriorating living conditions during Phase 2, with declining discard rates for material culture recovered from this period.
About the Code
Incorporating data from the DAACS database, we perform the correspondence analysis through the R programming language (R Core Team 2014) to conduct the CA analysis. The CA code was written by Fraser D. Neiman. The following packages generate the data tables, CA, and plots within this code: RPostgreSQL (Conway et al. 2013), plyr (Wickham 2014), reshape2 (Wickham 2014), seriation (Hahsler et al. 2014), ca (Greenacre, Nenadic, and Friendly 2014), and ggplot2 (Wickham 2015). As noted above, data, R code, preprint, and supplementary figures that goes along Bates et al. 2020 are freely available here through the Center for Open Science.
All of the R code used in this analysis was written within the domain of the R Core Team at the R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria (2014). The correspondence analysis for Morne Patate Village was conducted by Fraser Neiman and Lynsey Bates.
Incorporating data from the DAACS database, we perform the correspondence analysis through the R programming language (R Core Team 2014) to conduct the CA analysis. The CA code was written by Fraser D. Neiman. The following packages generate the data tables, CA, and plots within this code: RPostgreSQL (Conway et al. 2013), plyr (Wickham 2014), reshape2 (Wickham 2014), seriation (Hahsler et al. 2014), ca (Greenacre, Nenadic, and Friendly 2014), and ggplot2 (Wickham 2015).
All of the R code used in this analysis was written within the domain of the R Core Team at the R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria (2014). The correspondence analysis for Morne Patate Estate was conducted by Lynsey Bates.
The Harris Matrix summarizes stratigraphic relationships among excavated contexts and groups of contexts that DAACS staff has identified as part of the same stratigraphic group. Stratigraphic groups and contexts are represented as boxes, while lines connecting them represent temporal relationships implied by the site’s stratification, as recorded by the site’s excavators (Harris 1979). Stratigraphic groups, which represent multiple contexts, are identified on the diagram by numeric designations (e.g., SG01). Contexts that could not be assigned to stratigraphic groups are identified by their individual context, or FS, numbers (e.g. 6120, 6205, etc. ).
The varied deposits excavated as part of the Estate complex, including two house areas (Blocks E and “Stable”), the estate house, and estate kitchen, made the assignment of intrasite stratigraphic groups problematic. For this reason, we present separate Harris Matrices for each excavation block.
One stratigraphic group was assigned for one block: Block E SG01. The stratigraphic group was a combination of topsoil and plowzone. The remaining contexts are identified by their individual feature or context numbers (e.g., 5400 or F046).
Boxes with color fill represent contexts and stratigraphic groups with ceramic assemblages large enough to be included in the DAACS seriation of the Estate area as a whole (see Chronology). Seriation-based phase assignments are denoted by different colors to facilitate evaluation of the agreement between the stratigraphic and seriation chronologies. These phase assignments thus reflect an intrasite analysis, unlike the stratigraphic group assignments. Grey boxes represent contexts that were not included in the seriation because of small ceramic samples.
See Morne Patate Village Chronology for stratigraphic and phase information. For a printable version, download the PDFs: Block E Harris Matrix; Estate House Harris Matrix; Estate Kitchen Harris Matrix; Modern Stable Harris Matrix.
These Harris Matrices are based on data on stratigraphic relationships recorded among contexts in the DAACS database. It was drawn with the ArchEd application. See http://www.ads.tuwien.ac.at/arched/index.html.
PDF of Morne Patate Estate House and Dependencies site plan with excavated units and features labeled, compiled by DAACS using maps provided by Mark Hauser, Principal Investigator.
PDF of Morne Patate Estate House and Dependencies site plan with excavated units labeled, compiled by DAACS using maps provided by Mark Hauser, Principal Investigator.
PDF of Morne Patate Estate House and Dependencies site plan with excavated features labeled, compiled by DAACS using maps provided by Mark Hauser, Principal Investigator.
Morne Patate Estate House and Dependencies site map shapefiles. Compiled by DAACS using maps and GIS data provided by Mark Hauser, Principal Investigator.
Bates, Lynsey , Jillian E. Galle , and Khadene K. Harris
2017 Testing Hypotheses of Carved Disc Usage: A Comparative Analysis of the Assemblage from Morne Patate, Dominica Presented at the 2017 Meeting of The International Association of Caribbean Archaeology. St. Croix, USVI.
Bates, Lynsey , Jillian E. Galle , and Fraser D. Neiman
2020 Building an Archaeological Chronology for Morne Patate, Building an Archaeological Chronology for Morne Patate In Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate. Eds. Mark W. Hauser and Diane Wallman. 64-88.
Galle, Jillian E., and Lynsey Bates
2017 “Jouer sur du velours”: Archaeological Evidence of Gaming on Sites of Slavery in the Caribbean and United States Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology,
Harris, Khadene K.
2020 Morne Patate House Yards, 1750-1900: An Overview, Morne Patate House Yards, 1750-1900: An Overview In Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate. Eds. Mark W. Hauser and Diane Wallman. 88-111.
Hauser, Mark W.
2020a Archaeological Survey of Colonial Dominica., Archaeological Survey of Colonial Dominica. Report on file at The Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University: Evanston, IL.
Hauser, Mark W., and Dianne Wallman
2020 Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate, Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate University of Florida Press: Gainesville, FL.
Hauser, Mark W.
2020 Everyday Economies and Ecologies of Plantation Life, Everyday Economies and Ecologies of Plantation Life In Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate. Eds. Mark W. Hauser and Diane Wallman. 1-31.
Hauser, Mark W.
2021 Mapping Water on Dominica: Environment and Enslavement under Colonialism Culture, Place and Nature University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Murphy, Tessa , and Mark W. Hauser
2020 Dominica as an Evolving Landscape: Evidence of Changing Social, Political, and Economic Organization in the Eighteenth Century, Dominica as an Evolving Landscape: Evidence of Changing Social, Political, and Economic Organization in the Eighteenth Century In Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate. Eds. Mark W. Hauser and Diane Wallman. 31-48.
Wallman, Dianne , and Sarah Oas
2020 The Environmental Archaeology of Subsistence and the Socioecological Landscape at Morne Patate, The Environmental Archaeology of Subsistence and the Socioecological Landscape at Morne Patate In Archaeology in Dominica: Everyday Ecologies and Economics at Morne Patate. Eds. Mark W. Hauser and Diane Wallman. 153-168.